After doing this, they will give recommendations based on what they find. If there are coffee shops already in place, one recommendation they might make would be to include free Wi-Fi as a way to bring in more customers.
You can find a variety of companies online to help you with your market research. For example: Sundale Research's (sundaleresearch.com) primary goal is to provide new and mature businesses with objective, accurate industry data and market analysis on a wide range of topics. Their market research is intended to save you time and money while keeping up with industry trends.
Carrying on with the example of a coffee shop, a business plan consultant will figure out what the best location would be. They already know coffee shops do well in areas with a certain demographic in place. These include students and workers, who are within close proximity to book stores.
If you know all of these except for Marketing, say, then this is where you will need to invest some time and effort. You can find a wealth of information by utilizing the traditional data sources such as chambers of commerce, major cities' websites, trade associations, the US Census Bureau, trade journals, magazine and online articles and advertising, etc. Performing keyword searches on Google, or Ask will bring up websites to check out. Following are some places to start: